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Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
fabrizio1965 Offline
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#9
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
Si può usare la Co2 per produrre metanolo. Il problema è il costo. Se si riuscisse a rendere economicamente conveniente il procedimento non sarebbe certo un problema usare il metanolo prodotto
06-04-2019, 01:08 PM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#10
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
China claims development of new heat-resistant material for hypersonic aircraft

Citazione:Chinese scientists have developed a new heat-resistant material for hypersonic aircraft that can endure more than 3,000°C from heating caused by its passage through the atmosphere at speeds between Mach 5 and Mach 20, state-owned newspaper Global Times reported on 28 April.
Fan Jinglian, the lead scientist in the project, was quoted by the paper as saying that the new material “outperforms all similar foreign-made ones with its high melting point, low density, and high malleability”.
The material, which is reportedly a composite of ceramics and refractory metals, “enables a hypersonic aircraft to fly at Mach 5–20 within the atmosphere for several hours, as the high heat resulting from the friction between the aircraft and the air reaches between 2,000°C to 3,000°C: a temperature normal metal would not be able to endure”, stated the report.
“The combination of ceramics and refractory metals makes the material far more efficient than foreign-made ones, and this technology is world-leading,” Fan, who is a professor at the Central South University in Changsha, Hunan Province, was quoted as saying.
The scientist likened her composite to concrete cobble. “Think of the ceramics as the cobblestones, or the pellets, and the refractory metals are like the concrete. In high temperatures, the ceramics will act as pellets that pin the refractory metals so they will not soften and deform,” she was quoted as saying.
The Global Times report comes after China flight-tested the Jiageng-I reusable hypersonic test vehicle on 23 April...

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[Immagine: 2019-04-29-XTER-1-lUniversit%C3%A9-de-Xi...8x1024.jpg]   PER INGRANDIRE
30-04-2019, 12:05 PM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#11
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
Two Different DARPA Hypersonic Vehicles 'On Track' to Fly in 2019

Citazione:Two hypersonic vehicle prototypes developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Air Force are due to fly by the end of the year, the agency’s director said May 1.
One vehicle is part of the hypersonic air-breathing weapon concept, or HAWC, program. The other is the tactical boost glide, or TBG, effort, said Steven Walker.
“We're on track for both to have flights … before the calendar year ends,” he told reporters during a breakfast meeting in Washington, D.C. However, that might be questionable because once "you actually get into the building of these things and qualifying the hardware, … things tend to slip.”
Walker said there is a chance the vehicles could fly in early 2020, but was hopeful that that would not be the case. DARPA has been working on both efforts alongside the Air Force since 2012, he noted. 
“These [efforts] were focused on more tactical theater-level operations,” he said. 
TBG is meant to develop an advanced boost-glide system that can be launched from a rocket, he said. The HAWC concept takes advantage of work DARPA has previously done in scramjet technology to create a system that can be self-powered after being launched from an aircraft such as a B-52. According to the agency, HAWC focuses on three technology challenge areas including air-vehicle feasibility, effectiveness and affordability...

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03-05-2019, 11:29 PM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#12
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
Navy Studying How Lasers Could Power Unmanned Vehicles

Citazione:Along with using lasers to fry an adversary’s swarming drones, a team of U.S. Navy engineers is evaluating whether directed energy can also be an effective power supply for charging autonomous unmanned surface and air vehicles.
A capital ship generates a tremendous amount of energy for propulsion, ships systems, radars and electronic warfare equipment, Corey Bergsrud, a project integrator for Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy, said during the Navy League’s annual Sea Air Space expo.
The Navy is exploring using the electricity already generated through a ship’s operations to power directed energy weapons, but the Navy will likely use these weapons sparingly, Bergsrud said. His team is studying other uses for this generated power.
“You have a lot of potential at these places,” Bergsrud said. “Most of the time you probably won’t be using that energy, so what do you do with it in the meantime? Perhaps we can use that energy to reenergize our environments with autonomous systems.”
One idea is to create fast boats outfitted with charging pads that can meet autonomous vessels at sea and reenergize them with little human interaction. Or the directed energy system on a capital ship could double as a transmitter to reenergize autonomous systems at sea or in the air. Long-term, Bergsrud said, satellites could even be developed to shoot directed energy beams down to Earth to power forward operating bases...

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09-05-2019, 09:57 AM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#13
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
Rolls-Royce unveils hybrid power system for laser weapons

Citazione:Rolls-Royce has been quietly developing an integral system required to operate laser weapons on the battlefield for about a decade in its LibertyWorks division, which is the company’s internal advanced technology unit based in Indianapolis, Indiana.
But the company is ready to go public on the technology it has internally funded, having taken it through extensive testing, Mark Wilson, LibertyWorks’ chief operating officer, told Defense News in a May 9 interview.
That technology is an integrated power and thermal management system capable of powering a 100-kilowatt-class laser weapon, according to Wilson.
The system uses the company’s well-known M250 helicopter engine — that was used in the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopter and is also found in the Little Bird and the AH-6i helicopters — which allows the system to generate roughly 300 kilowatts of electrical power and 200 kilowatts of thermal management capacity, Wilson said.
But the system is also considered hybrid as it combines a battery with the engine...

“We saw this capability of using a turbine engine and a battery combined to operate propulsion systems was potentially coming,” Wilson said, “so we started looking at electrification and then said, ‘Oh, there are also some unique opportunities when you look at what a directed energy system needs. It needs a lot of power, it needs to be power dense and needs thermal technology as well and we are good at those types of capabilities.’”
The engine “allows us to have continuous operations as long as you have fuel available,” which leads to an endless magazine of laser shots, he said.
The battery allows “instantaneous power, so you don’t have to have the engine running all the time,” Wilson said. “You can start running on the battery and then switch over to the turbine engine once it’s up to speed.”
And the engine, when it’s running, can recharge the battery, he added...

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10-05-2019, 11:10 AM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#14
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
The Pentagon wants to create a broader network of innovators

Citazione:The Pentagon is reorganizing its internal offices to better partner with universities and upstart technology firms to ensure the military has access to talent and research in the near future and to fortify its innovation pipeline.

Defense leaders are increasingly worried about what they describe as the national security innovation base. They hope a series of steps will make it easier to work with, and take advantage of, the leading-edge science across the country. This includes technology that spans from the concept stage to the production stage, and outlets that includes researchers to the defense industrial base.

The changes, which affect the Defense Innovation Unit and MD5, were first mentioned in the Pentagon’s budget request for fiscal 2020 and have been discussed with increasing details in recent weeks. Defense innovation leaders explained the new setup to C4ISRNET in an interview May 9.DIU’s mission is to help the military accelerate its use of emerging commercial technologies and lower the barrier of entry for businesses that don’t already do business with the Pentagon.

Under the new approach:
- The MD5 National Security Technology Accelerator has been renamed the National Security Innovation Network. The network, which helps connect academia, DOD laboratories and users, will fall under the Defense Innovation Unit as a way to take advantage of economies of scale. Morgan Plummer, the network’s managing director, said the new name, which changed May 6, more accurately portrays the agency’s mission. The program has its own line in the budget for the first time in fiscal 2020.

- The National Security Innovation Capital fund, a new program created in the fiscal 2019 defense policy bill, will set aside investment in upstart U.S. companies so they don’t fall risk to foreign investors. U.S. leaders fear that as some startups become so desperate for funding they may not consider the national security ramifications of accepting money from overseas. “It’s an attempt to keep hardware investment on shore,” said Mike Madsen, director of Washington operations at DIU. The NSIC also aims to signal to the investment community that the Defense Department is interested in developing dual-use technologies and to provide a foreign investment alternative for hardware companies.

In testimony to Congress in March, Mike Griffin, the Pentagon’s acquisition chief for research and engineering, said that the new groups will fall to DIU “in an effort to put similarly-focused organizations under a single leadership structure”...

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14-05-2019, 03:11 PM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#15
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
DARPA vuole automatizzare il combattimento aereo con un AI Wingman:

Training AI to Win a Dogfight

Citazione:Artificial intelligence has defeated chess grandmasters, Go champions, professional poker players, and, now, world-class human experts in the online strategy games Dota 2 and StarCraft II. No AI currently exists, however, that can outduel a human strapped into a fighter jet in a high-speed, high-G dogfight. As modern warfare evolves to incorporate more human-machine teaming, DARPA seeks to automate air-to-air combat, enabling reaction times at machine speeds and freeing pilots to concentrate on the larger air battle.

Turning aerial dogfighting over to AI is less about dogfighting, which should be rare in the future, and more about giving pilots the confidence that AI and automation can handle a high-end fight. As soon as new human fighter pilots learn to take-off, navigate, and land, they are taught aerial combat maneuvers. Contrary to popular belief, new fighter pilots learn to dogfight because it represents a crucible where pilot performance and trust can be refined. To accelerate the transformation of pilots from aircraft operators to mission battle commanders — who can entrust dynamic air combat tasks to unmanned, semi-autonomous airborne assets from the cockpit — the AI must first prove it can handle the basics.

To pursue this vision, DARPA created the Air Combat Evolution (ACE) program. ACE aims to increase warfighter trust in autonomous combat technology by using human-machine collaborative dogfighting as its initial challenge scenario. DARPA will hold a Proposers Day for interested researchers on May 17, 2019, in Arlington, Virginia.

“Being able to trust autonomy is critical as we move toward a future of warfare involving manned platforms fighting alongside unmanned systems,” said Air Force Lt. Col. Dan Javorsek (Ph.D.), ACE program manager in DARPA’s Strategic Technology Office (STO). “We envision a future in which AI handles the split-second maneuvering during within-visual-range dogfights, keeping pilots safer and more effective as they orchestrate large numbers of unmanned systems into a web of overwhelming combat effects.”

ACE is one of several STO programs designed to enable DARPA’s “mosaic warfare” vision. Mosaic warfare shifts warfighting concepts away from a primary emphasis on highly capable manned systems — with their high costs and lengthy development timelines — to a mix of manned and less-expensive unmanned systems that can be rapidly developed, fielded, and upgraded with the latest technology to address changing threats. Linking together manned aircraft with significantly cheaper unmanned systems creates a “mosaic” where the individual “pieces” can easily be recomposed to create different effects or quickly replaced if destroyed, resulting in a more resilient warfighting capability.

The ACE program will train AI in the rules of aerial dogfighting similar to how new fighter pilots are taught, starting with basic fighter maneuvers in simple, one-on-one scenarios. While highly nonlinear in behavior, dogfights have a clearly defined objective, measureable outcome, and the inherent physical limitations of aircraft dynamics, making them a good test case for advanced tactical automation. Like human pilot combat training, the AI performance expansion will be closely monitored by fighter instructor pilots in the autonomous aircraft, which will help co-evolve tactics with the technology. These subject matter experts will play a key role throughout the program...

[Immagine: Ace%20619x316.jpg]
19-05-2019, 12:06 AM
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Dan Cooper Offline
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#16
RE: Ricerca e Sviluppo (R&D)
E dopo l'età del bronzo e del ferro... ritorniamo ai giorni nostri all'età della pietra (rara)...
raccolgo una notizia postata da Capitan Harlock e ripubblico:

EURARE, l'Europa è in cerca di terre rare

Citazione:L'Europa può dipendere dall’importazione di terre rare? L’Europa può ambire ad una piena autarchia in estrazione, raffinazione ed utilizzo di materiali tanto fondamentali per lo sviluppo di tecnologie come auto, smartphone, fibra ottica, semiconduttori, pannelli fotovoltaici e altro ancora? Il progetto EURARE si pone esattamente questo obiettivo: unire le forze, esprimere le competenze, mettere le conoscenze a fattor comune e consentire all’Unione Europea (in caso di necessità) di uscire a testa alta da situazioni di emergenza.

Le terre rare sono elementi estremamente scarsi (di qui il nome di REE – Rare Earth Elements) perché, sebbene siano relativamente distribuite in tutto il globo, l’estrazione è oggi affare di pochi. La Cina, in particolare, controlla oggi oltre il 90% del mercato di riferimento ed ha quindi buon gioco a gestire la parte alta di una catena produttiva che porta prodotti di largo consumo a livello internazionale. La necessaria cautela nei confronti di instabili equilibri geopolitici suggerisce pertanto all’occidente una forzata riflessione: cosa succederebbe se improvvisamente le forniture di terre rare dovessero venire meno? Il Giappone, messo alle strette da un incidente diplomatico con la Cina, ne è uscito grazie all’improvvisa scoperta di un grande giacimento di terre rare che ha spostato il problema avanti nel tempo. Per l’Europa invece l’attesa è terminata: occorre capire come gestire le terre rare affinché non diventino il collo di bottiglia di uno sviluppo tecnologico ed economico su cui l’occidente basa le proprie attività...

[Immagine: P6yvkTQ.jpg]   PER INGRANDIRE
Map of European REE deposits and occurrences 2017


Research and development for the Rare Earth Element  supply chain in Europe

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EURare project brochure in PDF
24-05-2019, 01:22 PM
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